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Turkey is written in Turkish: Türkiye) is the largest part of Asia and a small part of the continent of Europe. The Bosphorus and the Dardanelles are located in its territory, making its location strategically and influential on the Black Sea States. Bordered by Georgia, Iran, Armenia and Azerbaijan to the east, Iraq, Syria, the Mediterranean Sea in the south, the Aegean Sea, Greece and Bulgaria westward, the Black Sea is north.
Turkey was the center of Ottoman rule until 1922, until the Turkish Republic was established in 1923 by Mustafa Kemal Ataturk.
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Capital:: Ankara largest city:: Istanbul official language:: Turkish system of Government:: Republican
Independence Proclamation of the Republic):: 29 October 1923 Area:: 779, 452 km2
Turkey was the center of Ottoman rule until 1922, and the Seljuk state was dissolved and the Ottoman Sultanate was established between the 14th and 16th centuries and was expanded until it took control of the Byzantine Empire, Bulgaria and Serbia until it ceased to expand after the defeat of Bayezid I Yildirim (thunderbolt In 1402 CE, this defeat followed a period of unrest and a few political problems. The state regained its balance and continued its policy of expansion under Murad II, then Mohammed al-Fateh, who managed to enter Constantinople in 1453 and end the Byzantine presence in the region. The Ottoman Empire then passed through stages of degradation and decline, followed by some stages of growth and prosperity, which lasted only a few years until the state's disintegration continued. The regulations were proclaimed in 1839, which are European-style reforms. Sultan Abdulhamid II ended these reforms in an authoritarian manner, as a result of which the Sultan was ready for all the national powers in Turkey. In 1922, the last Sultans Mohamed VI was deposed. Finally, Mustafa Kemal Ataturk completely abolished the caliphate in 1924.
The land area of Turkey is 779.452 km and 97% is located in Asia and the rest in Europe. Western Turkey overlooks
On the Aegean Sea and south on the Mediterranean Sea and north on the Black Sea. The border was shared by eight countries, including Iraq and Syria.
Turkey has many sources of fresh water, such as rivers and lakes. More than one third of its area is agricultural land and forests cover more than a quarter of its territory. There are many mountains above the Mount Ararat 5137 meters). Turkey controls several islands, mostly in the Aegean Sea and the Mediterranean Sea, the most important of which is the island of Amroz 279 km2.
The population of the Republic of Turkey is about 70 million, according to 2005 statistics. The demographics of Turkey are complex and consist of tens of races, the origins of which are due to the Ottoman Empire, where their spheres of influence included vast territories in Asia, Europe and Africa and the control of many peoples. There is no official census of the population by ethnicity, because the Turkish government sees in Turkey
A country for all Turks regardless of their ethnic origins, which are not accepted by all minorities, especially the Kurds. According to estimates, the Turks constitute the largest ethnic composition of the population about 70-80% (followed by the Kurds 20-30%), then the Zezyon 2-3% (the Arabs 2%), Circassians 0.5%) and Georgians 0.5%. There are other minorities: Armenians, Greeks, Assyria, Aramion, Bosniaks, Albanians, Chechens, Bulgarians, Lazyon and others. The Crimean, Tatar, Azeri, Gujarati, Uzbek, Kyrgyz, Turkmen, and Kazakh minorities are Turkish minorities.
There are large Turkish diaspora communities, most of which are concentrated in the countries of the European Union, where Turks, for example, constitute the largest foreign community in Germany, numbering nearly 4 million people. There are also large Turkish communities in the United States, Canada and Australia.
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